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Rabu, 22 Oktober 2014

Grammar a Day - Level 4 [ 〜始める (-hajimeru) ]


 
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〜始める (〜はじめる)

    Meaning: to begin/start VERB-ing

    Example: I started reading yesterday.
    JLPT Level: 4

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  Notes:  
This construct expresses the beginning of an action or verb. It takes the [conjunctive form] of the verb and appends to it the auxiliary verb 始める.
Hajimaru which also means to start same as hajimeru means the same.

However, hajimaru doesn't require someone to do something and it never takes the を particle while hajimeru needs を.

Japanese contains these types of verbs: transitive and intransitive.
  Examples:  
Note: visit WWWJDIC to lookup any unknown words found in the example(s)...
Alternatively, view this page on POPjisyo.com or Rikai.com

  • 本を読み始めた   [ex #1180]
    I started reading the book.
  • 本格的に本を読み始めたのは大学生になってからである。   [ex #3194]
    I really began reading books in earnest once I was a University Student.
  • 6時を過ぎると従業員は帰り始めた。   [ex #4365]
    After 6 p.m. the employees began to disappear.
  • あまりにも彼の手紙が優しかったので、彼女は感動して泣き始めた。   [ex #4366]
    So friendly was his letter that she was deeply moved and began to cry.
  • お母さんはコーヒーカップの歴史について調べ始めた。   [ex #4367]
    My mother looked up the history of coffee cups.
  • お母さんが突然歌い始めた。   [ex #4368]
    All of a sudden my mother began to sing.
  • この新聞は最も人気のある筆者をはずしてから、読者数を減らし始めた。   [ex #4369]
    The newspaper began to lose readers when it dispensed with one of its most popular writers.
  • さらに悪いことに、激しく雷が鳴り始めた。   [ex #4370]
    To make matters worse, it began to thunder fiercely.

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  • 本格的に本を読み出したのは大学生になってからである。
    'When i really began to read books was after i became a University Student'.

    What are the differences here betweeen the yomihajimeta and the yomidashita? It feels as if the yomidashita is done in a faster way or something more epochal? Appreciate the comments on this observation :)! (contributor: Exrulez)
  • V-hajimeta and
    V-dashita

    I infer some differences from the examples we have so far (need more though, hint hint :)

    yomi-hajimeta : that was the first time I started reading

    ugoki-dashita : it started moving
    not neccesarily the first time.

    ugoki-hajimeta : it started to move (first time?)

    also, depends on the verb. -dashita seems to feel more sudden, violent to me, like machinery lurching to a start... ? (contributor: dc)
  • PS i added your example anyway above, but as a -hajimeta (on this page). by adding examples makes it easier for others to edit (comments can only be edited/deleted by their author but ex's are open) (contributor: dc)
  • I cannot find a difference between V出すand vし始める. (contributor: Miki)
  • 出す have a nuance of sudden action

    走り出す means to 'break into a run', like when a girl sees a cockroach and she '走り出す'。

    始めた have a more neutral meaning, as in started eating, or start running in the case of '走り始めた' (like you start running when a race start.)

    so that's what i think... (contributor: arkofnoah)
  • I changed the information about this entry, because the entry appeared to be a grammar rule for the plain past tense of 始める, when in fact the rule can be abstracted to cover the entirety of conjugations of the verb (be it plain, polite, past, non-past).

    @Miki - arkofnoah hit it right on the head; 〜出す carries an 'explosive' feeling along with it. 〜始める does not. (contributor: KyleGoetz)
  • Yes, I agree with arkofnoah.(@_@) (contributor: Miki)
  • Are there any exmaples of 「生き始める」and the usage of this compound verb?
    Thank you
    (contributor: Patty)

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Acknowledgements

The sofware code used to make this page uses David 'DC' Collier's jGram Japanese Grammar Database. Visit the jGram site to find more grammar entries or to add your own!

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Copyright © 2014 Yookoso! | Austin, TX

Grammar a Day - Level 3 [ にくい (nikui) ]


 
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にくい

    Meaning: Is diffcult to do

    Example: He's difficult to understand, isn't he?
    JLPT Level: 3

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  Notes:  
formed with Vm + (難い) にくい, making it an i adjective.
  Examples:  
Note: visit WWWJDIC to lookup any unknown words found in the example(s)...
Alternatively, view this page on POPjisyo.com or Rikai.com

  • 彼は分かりにくいでしょうかなぁ?   [ex #4750]
    He's difficult to understand,isn't he?
  • 食べにくい食べ物がきらいだ。   [ex #4751]
    I don't like difficult to eat foods.
  • このめずらしい切手は手にはいりにくいんだよ。   [ex #4752]
    This rare stamp is hard to come by.
  • タイガーティの説明はとてもわかりにくいですね。   [ex #6644]
    tigert`s explanation is very difficult to understand.
  • 英語での本を読みにくいです。   [ex #8633]
    It's hard to read the book in English.

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  • As for the comment in Notes, t should be にくい, not いくい. typo?
    In kanji 'にくい' is in 難い or 悪い
    'verb conjugation + にくい'.
    (contributor: Miki)
  • fixed, thanks!
    (contributor: ninja_k)
  • What's the difference between むずかしい and にくい? (contributor: crbennett)
  • The different is that 難い is added to a verb stem to change it to an adjective, whereas 難しい is an existing adjective meaning 'difficult', and thus can't be conjugated to a verb stem.

    For example:

    That word is difficult to remember (lit. That word's remembering is difficult.)
    その言葉が思い出し難いな。

    as compared to:

    Remembering that word is difficult (lit. That word's remembering is difficult).
    その言葉は思い出すことが難しいだ。

    EDIT 10/15/07: You're right; thanks tiger! (contributor: Groove)
  • Hey groove in your second example. I don`t think you need the する.

    思い出す is a verb already. other than that I like your explaination very clear I added a vocabulary note for yasui (contributor: tigert)

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Acknowledgements

The sofware code used to make this page uses David 'DC' Collier's jGram Japanese Grammar Database. Visit the jGram site to find more grammar entries or to add your own!

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Copyright © 2014 Yookoso! | Austin, TX

Grammar a Day - Level 2 [ に伴って (nitomonatte) ]


 
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に伴って (にともなって)

    Meaning: as; in proportion to; with

    Example: The number of problems related to the sale of pets has been increasing with the recent pet boom.
    JLPT Level: 2

  [ View this entry online ]
  Notes:  
*When と共に(とともに) means 'as,' it can be rephrased as につれて, に伴って(にともなって), or に従って(にしたがって).
EXAMPLE: 景気の回復[と共に/につれて/に伴って/に従って]失業率が下がってきた。(As business recovers, the unemployment rate is coming down.)

FORMATION:
V(dict. form) + に伴って・に伴い
V(dict. form) + に伴う + N
N + に伴って・に伴い
N1 + に伴う + N2 ('accompany' is often a plausible translation)
  Examples:  
Note: visit WWWJDIC to lookup any unknown words found in the example(s)...
Alternatively, view this page on POPjisyo.com or Rikai.com

  • 地震に伴って火災が発生することが多い。   [ex #579]
    Fire outbreaks are often associated with earthquakes
  • 軽石噴火:粘性の高いマグマの活動に伴って発生す ることが多い。   [ex #734]
    Pumice Eruptions : Many incidents of occurences associated with [volcanic] activity of highly viscous magma.
  • 少子化に伴い高齢者が高齢者を介護するようになるだろう。   [ex #5305]
    Along with the declining birth rate, the elderly will begin to care for the elderly.
  • 人口が増えるに伴って、 いろいろな問題が起ってきた。   [ex #5806]
    Various problems have come up along with the increase in the population.
  • 経済発展に伴う環境破壊が問題になっている。   [ex #6420]
    Environmental destruction is becoming a problem as the economy develops.
  • ペットの販売に関するトラブルが、最近のペットブームに伴って増加しています。   [ex #6421]
    The number of problems related to the sale of pets has been increasing with the recent pet boom.
  • 秋が深まるに伴って、山の紅葉が進む。   [ex #6422]
    The mountain's autumn colors advance as autumn deepens.
  • 地震に伴う火災で、多くの人命が失われた。   [ex #6423]
    Because of the fires that accompanied the earthquake, there was a large loss of life.
  • 発熱に伴って、吐き気もしてきた。   [ex #6939]
    Along with the fever I also began to vomit.
  • この町でもどんどん人口が増加している。それ にともなってスーパーや銀行もでき、便利になってきた。   [ex #7173]
    The population has increased in this town rapidly, you could see the supermarkets and bank also As well,it has been useful.

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  • I think 'be associated with' is good. Along with implies something 'be followed by' something but 'at the same time'. (contributor: Miki)
  • mikiへ
    so nitomonatte means
      'at the same time',
    not
      one after the other /
      one thing caused by another' (contributor: dc)
  • can you explain any difference with nitsurete or totomoni ? (contributor: dc)
  • Sorry, my English was wrong.
    ni tomonatte means
    'one thing caused by another'
    not
    'at the same time', 'one after the other'(kougo??) (contributor: Miki)
  • I think 'one thing caused by another' does not preclude them both happening over the same (general) time period. (contributor: Amatuka)
  • I don't remember what was there before now. ^^v (contributor: Amatuka)
  • Oh, and
    はじめまして、みきさん。これからもどうぞよろしくね。
    ;-) (contributor: Amatuka)
  • こちらこそ。:) (contributor: Miki)
  • I would vote for: 'Earthquakes are often accompanied by outbreaks of fire.' に伴ってdoes not have the meaning of 'as a result of' or 'as the consequence of' even though it is broad enough to encompass such situation in volving causality. It can be an accidental, as opposed to causal, happenstance. (contributor: bamboo4)
  • Hmm, however it does have an strong 'direction' and at least a hint of an /implication/ of causality.
    Take the statement 'Psychosis is often associated with canabis use.' vs. 'Canabis use is often associated with psychosis.'
    I think there's a fairly clear difference in implied meaning between the two. (contributor: Amatuka)
  • OK I've added another example and a bit to the grammar. Is this good to go to better 'check' number? (contributor: Amatuka)
  • The study book I'm using indicates that に伴って can indicate a causal relationship (as につれて and にしたがって), but it can ALSO be used for situations that arise simultaneously (同時に起きる) - supporting 'earthquakes are often accompanied by ...' (which also gets my vote). (contributor: srobertson)
  • I saw this sentence in an email from a friend today:

    住所変更に伴う、やらなきゃいけないことがたくさんあって.

    She was apologizing for not writing sooner because she had a lot to do in conjunction with her move to a new apartment. This is the dictionary form not the te form but I guess it fits?

    Also, does anyone think there should there be a きゃいけない (colloquial) entry? (contributor: yookoso)
  • As indicated before, 伴って does not have the direct causal relationship with the event in which the secondary event occurs. There may be such causal relationship or there may not be, so that the expression does not exclude causality but that's not the only meaning that you get out of 伴って.
    (contributor: bamboo4)
  • Just my two cents, but I think 伴って means 'as...', like 'as something happens, something else happens', same as に従って. 6420 Any objections? (contributor: sw)
  • Usage of に伴って does have a cause-effect relationship meaning, however this isn't necessarily true. If A is the cause and B is the resulting effect, B can also come about as an indirect effect that A causes.

    So to bamboo4 and swさん、you're both correct. (contributor: Tetsuzan)
  • English translation should be 'Alongside', IMHO. (contributor: DrJones)

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Acknowledgements

The sofware code used to make this page uses David 'DC' Collier's jGram Japanese Grammar Database. Visit the jGram site to find more grammar entries or to add your own!

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Grammar a Day - Level 1 [ に至る (niitaru) ]


 
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に至る (にいたる)

    Meaning: leads to, all the way to, as far as

    Example: this thinking will lead us to glory
    JLPT Level: 1

  [ View this entry online ]
  Notes:  
noun + に至る
 東京に至るまで as far as tokyo

Vdic + に至る

often used with まで:until
  Examples:  
Note: visit WWWJDIC to lookup any unknown words found in the example(s)...
Alternatively, view this page on POPjisyo.com or Rikai.com

  • この道は公園に至る。   [ex #3506]
    This road goes to the park.
  • 義務の路は栄光に至る道であった。   [ex #3507]
    The path of duty was the way to glory.
  • 公民権運動はある夢に至る。   [ex #3508]
    The civil rights movement leads to a dream.
  • 重要なのはゴールではなく、そこに至る道程である。   [ex #3509]
    It is not the goal but the way there that matters.
  • 昔から今に至るまで存在する、あらゆる社会の歴史は階級闘争の歴史である。   [ex #3510]
    The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles.
  • 宣戦布告に至るまでの時期はこのような状況であったと言える。   [ex #3511]
    Thus were affairs circumstanced in the period leading up to the declaration of war.
  • 大事に至る前に火事は消し止められた。   [ex #3512]
    The fire was put out before it got serious.
  • 彼らは、カルカッタからニュウーヨーク市に至るまで、世界中に支部を持っている。   [ex #3513]
    They have branches all over the world, from Calcutta to New York City.
  • 滅びに至る門は大きく、その道は広い。   [ex #3514]
    For the gate is wide and the way is easy, that leads to destruction.
  • 関東から東北にいたるまで   [ex #5145]
    From Kantou as far as Touhoku.
  • 中国から地中海に至るシルクロードには、さまざまな文化交流の跡が見られる。   [ex #7794]
    A variety of traces of cultural exchange can be seen along the ancient route of the Silk Road, all the way from the Mediterranean to China.

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Copyright © 2014 Yookoso! | Austin, TX